My research centers on social interaction, particularly institutional talk such as higher education seminars, multilingual classrooms, organizational meetings, performance appraisal interviews, and second language speaking tests. Using Conversation Analysis (CA), I am interested in how social institutions shape, restrict, and promote particular interactional conduct, and how social phenomena such as affect or norms are socially organized in talk and action. I work with audio and video-recordings of social interaction and examine closely the sequencing of talk.
Current research projects
"Multilingual spaces? Language practices in English classrooms" (The Swedish Research Council, Dnr 2016-03469, SEK 7 416 000) [2017-2020]
"Multilingual Spaces" is a collaboration between Lund University and Karlstad University, and encompasses Marie Källkvist, Henrik Gyllstad, Pia Sundqvist, and Erica Sandlund. The project focuses on language practices in multilingual English classroom spaces in Swedish secondary schools. Using a large survey to map self-reported teacher practices, ethnographic methodology and conversation analysis to study language practices in English classrooms, and experimental intervention and quantitative methods to measure L2 vocabulary learning over time, the project aims to contribute to the development of evidence-based language practices in English teaching in multilingual schools. MLS project website
Studies in Workplace Interaction and Professional Learning Environments, Uppsala University
Making sense of holistic assessment: Teachers’ development of their own matrices for assessing oral proficiency in the national test of English (2017)
In an ongoing study (with Pia Sundqvist and Liliann Byman-Frisén, Karlstad University), we are interested in how English teachers make sense of assessment rubrics for the National Test of English, Part A (Speaking). The project aims to yield knowledge on how teachers, in their daily practice, construct their interpretations of national assessment criteria in their own assessment work. Data consists of a web-based questionnaire, interviews with teachers, and scoring sheets that different teachers have developed in order to facilitate the process of assessing second language speaking proficiency. The project was initially funded by the Center for Language and Literature in Education (CSL) and is currently part of Byman Frisén's ongoing PhD dissertation work.
Nordic research network on PAIs (2016- )
In a research collaboration between conversation analysts in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland, we study complaints in performance appraisal interviews across a corpus of data collected in all three countries. The research group currently consists of Birte Asmuß, Erica Sandlund, Esa Lehtinen, Johanna Ruusuvuori, Piia Mikkola and Helen Melander Bowden.
Equity in Assessment - EquA (2016-2018)
The project is funded by the Center for Language and Literature in Education (2016) and the research group ROSE (2017-) focusing on the effects of different types of rater training on equity in the assessment of complex language skills in Swedish and English. The project is a combination of research and professional development for teachers. For more information, visit https://www.kau.se/csl/forskning/forskningsprojekt/ovriga-projekt/likvardig-bedomning
Collaborative assessments and conversation (2016)
In a project funded by the Center for Language and Literature in Education (CSL), Karlstad University, I am studying collaborative assessment conversations between teachers, using Conversation Analysis. Data was collected in collaboration with Pia Sundqvist, and the project is expected to make a contribution to current debates on productive forms for assessing oral proficiency in a second language.
Translanguaging as a resource or problem in the EFL classroom (2016)
In this pilot study funded by the Center for Language and Literature in Education, Karlstad University, Pia Sundqvist and myself examined EFL teachers' strategies for managing the presence of different first languages in the Swedish EFL classroom. The project was a pilot study for the project Multilingual Spaces (see above).
Testing Talk (2013-2016), Swedish Research Council [reg no 2012-4129], SEK 5 413 000
The project "Testing Talk: Interactional organization and assessment practice in paired L2 oral proficiency tests" is funded by the Swedish Research Council from 2013 to 2016. In collaboration with Pia Sundqvist and Lina Nyroos, second language speaking tests recorded during the national test of English for ninth graders were studied. Using a mixed method approach including conversation analysis, web surveys, and teacher interviews, we focus on interaction in the oral proficiency part of the national test of English in Sweden. The project aimed to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of how learner interaction in paired OP tests is introduced, conducted, and assessed. Project website: www.kau.se/testing-talk
Selected past research projects
Strategic career grant, Karlstad University, 2012-2014
During 2012-2014, I held an individual research career development grant from Karlstad University, where my main foci were performance appraisal interviews as institutional interaction on the one hand, and conversation analysis in applied gender studies on the other.
EqualGrowth (KaU, the EU Regional Development Fund, and Region Varmland [id 147243, 2008-2011]
The EqualGrowth (JämVäxt) project was an interdisciplinary project on gender and sustainable development co-funded by Karlstad University. As one part of the project, myself and my colleagues studied performance appraisal interviews (Sw. medarbetarsamtal) in three organizations (e.g. Jakobsen et al, 2010; Sandlund et al, 2011; Jansson et al, 2012; Gonas, Lindgren & Sandlund, 2012; Gonas & Sandlund, 2013, Nyroos & Sandlund, 2014), with a particular interest in institutional norms in talk and action.
Feeling by Doing – doctoral dissertation (1999-2004)
In my doctoral dissertation (Sandlund, 2004), I examined the social organization of emotions in institutional talk. Focusing on displays of affect as well as orientations to affectivity, I demonstrate how emotions are systematically fitted into the sequential structure of talk, and how orientations to affectivity contribute to transforming and redirecting interactional trajectories.
Over the years I have taught various courses in English Linguistics, and supervised a number of student papers in English. I have also taught courses at the Department of Psychology, and participated in the teaching of courses for PhD students at Linkoping University and Karlstad University. I teach MA/PhD courses on Language and Gender (2013), Conversation Analysis (2016; 2018), Second Language Acquisition (2017), Linguistic Data (2018) and a PhD course for the international and interdisciplinary research school in gender studies, InterGender (2014,with Don Kulick and Ann-Carita Evaldsson).
Supervision of PhD students
- Lina Nyroos, Department of Scandinavian Languages, Uppsala University (PhD degree: 2012) (co-supervisor)
- Peter Wikström, Department of English, Karlstad University (PhD degree: 2017). (head supervisor)
- Sebastian Malinowski, Department of English, Karlstad University (enrolled 2016). (co-supervisor).
- Tim Roberts, Department of English, Karlstad University (enrolled 2017) (co-supervisor)
- Anna Wilk, Department of Educational Studies, Karlstad University (licentiate, DUNDING research school, enrolled 2017), (co-supervisor)
Most of my research projects have an applied or interventionist approach, where research findings are communicated to research participants and practicioners (language teachers, managers, organizations) through interactive workshops. To learn more, visit the project websites at:
EqualGrowth (JämVäxt) project, 2008-2011, see www.kau.se/jamvaxt
Testing Talk project, see www.kau.se/testing-talk
1999 MA, English Linguistics (minor: Psychology), Karlstad University
2004 Ph.D., English Linguistics, Karlstad University
2006- Senior lecturer, Department of English, Karlstad University
2017-2018 Senior lecturer, Uppsala University, Department of Education
2010-2015 Affiliated researcher, Center for Gender Studies, Karlstad University
Visit our project website for activities, publications, and links!
Sandlund, E., & Sundqvist, P. (2016). Equity in L2 English oral assessment: Criterion-based facts or works of fiction? Nordic Journal of English Studies, 15(2), 113–131. PDF
Sandlund, E., Sundqvist, P. & Nyroos, L. (2016). Research-based professional development workshops: Focus on oral test interaction and assessment. Nordic Journal of Modern Language Methodology, 4 (1), 24-48. PDF
Sandlund, E., Sundqvist, P. & Nyroos, L. (2016). Testing L2 talk: A review of empirical studies on second language oral proficiency testing. Language and Linguistics Compass, 10(1), 14-29. PDF
Sundqvist, P., Sandlund, E. & Nyroos, L. (2015). Speaking about Speaking: English Teachers' Practices and Views regarding Part A of the English National Test. LMS Lingua, 3, 16-23.
Sundqvist, P., Sandlund, E. & Nyroos, L. (2014). National speaking tests in English - does group size matter? LMS Lingua, 3, 29-31.
Sandlund, E. (2014). Prescribing conduct: Enactments of talk or thought in advice-giving sequences. Discourse Studies, 16 (5), 645-666.
Sandlund, E. (2014). Book review: Födandets sociala utformning. Språkliga och kroppsliga praktiker i förlossningsrummet. (Author: Näslund, Shirley). Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, 1-2, 124-130.
Nyroos, L. & Sandlund, E. (2014). From paper to practice: Asking and responding to a standardized question item in performance appraisal interviews. Pragmatics & Society, 5 (2), 165-190.
Sundqvist, P., Sandlund, E., Nyroos, L. & Wikström, P. (2013). Genomförande och bedömning av muntliga nationella prov i engelska: en pilotstudie. KAPET, 9(1), 24-45. PDF
Sandlund, E. & Sundqvist, P. (2013). Provuppgiftshantering som social praktik - en jämförelse mellan interaktionsanalys och bedömardata för muntligt prov i engelska. I C. Rosén, P. Simfors & A-K Sundberg (Eds). Språk i undervisning. Rapport från ASLA:s vårsymposium, Linköping 11-12 maj, 2012. Papers from the ASLA symposium, Linköping University, May 11-12, (pp. 125-138). Linköping/Växjö: ASLA, Svenska föreningen för språkvetenskap.
Gonäs, L. & Sandlund, E. (2013). Capturing change: Approaching gender relations in working life. Editorial introduction. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 34 (3), 471-482. Online access: http://eid.sagepub.com/content/34/3.toc
Sandlund, E. & Sundqvist, P. (2013). Diverging task orientations in L2 oral proficiency tests - a conversation analytic approach to participant understandings of pre-set discussion tasks. Nordic Journal of Modern Language Methodology, 2(1), 1-21. PDF
Sandlund, E. & Sundqvist, P. (2013). Att tala under test och testa tal – prov i
muntlig språkfärdighet är en komplex historia. LMS Lingua, 2, 21-25. PDF
Sandlund, E. & Sundqvist, P. (2012). ”But what can we learn from history” – om konsten att diskutera ”rätt” under det muntliga nationella provet i engelska. Kapet – Karlstads universitets Pedagogiska Tidskrift, 8 (1), 45-66. PDF
Lindgren, G. & Sandlund, E. (2012). Jämställd hållbar tillväxt - från ord till handling. Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, 2, 2012.
Jansson, U., Sandlund, E., Olin-Scheller, C. & Jakobsen, L. (2012). Diskursiv och könad normering kring stress i ett föränderligt arbetsliv. Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, 2, 2012. PDF
Sandlund, E. & Sundqvist, P. (2012). ”It was hard. Let’s skip it!” Funderingar kring bedömning av muntlig färdighet i språk”. LMS Lingua, 1, 2012. PDF
Sandlund, E., Olin-Scheller, C., Nyroos, L., Jakobsen, L. & Nahnfeldt, C. (2011). The performance appraisal interview – an arena for the reinforcement of norms for ideal employeeship. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 1 (2),59-75. Online access: http://www.nordicwl.com/?p=619
Sandlund, E. & Sundqvist, P. (2011). Managing Task-Related Trouble in L2 Oral Proficiency Tests: Contrasting Interaction Data and Rater Assessment. Novitas-ROYAL - Research on Youth and Language, 5 (1), 91-120. Open Access PDF: http://www.novitasroyal.org/archives/vol-5-issue-1
Jakobsen, L., Nahnfeldt, C., Nyroos, L., Olin-Scheller, C. & Sandlund, E. (2010). Medarbetarsamtal som arena för att befästa normer kring medarbetarskap. Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, 16 (3), 39-54.PDF
Sandlund, E. (2005). On Words and their Interactional Power: How to Accomplish Social Goals with ’Mock’ States-of-Being. I S. Granath, J. Miliander & E. Wennö (Eds.). The Power of Words. Studies in honour of Moira Linnarud. Karlstad: Karlstad University Press.
Sandlund, E. (2004). Feeling by Doing: The Social Organization of Everyday Emotions in Academic Talk-in-Interaction. Doktorsavhandling. Karlstad University Studies, 2004:36.
Sandlund, E.S. (2004). Embarrassment as an Interactional Accomplishment. In B. Starrin (Ed). Emotionssociologiska uppsatser. Papers från forskarutbildningskurs i emotionernas sociologi. Karlstad University Studies, 2004:1, 123-140.
Johansson-Hidén, B., Friman, Y. & Sandlund, E. (2003). Personal- och politikergruppers perspektiv på räddningstjänstens strategiska utveckling. Karlstad University Studies, 2003:37.
Linnarud, M. & E. Sandlund (2003). Language and Learning. Introduction to M. Linnarud & E. Sandlund (Eds). Språk och Lärande. Conference Proceedings from ASLA 2002. Edsbruk: Akademitryck, 9-21.
Sandlund, E.S. (2003). Doing feedback - Some features of managing critical response in academic seminars. In M. Linnarud & E. Sandlund (Eds). Språk och Lärande. Conference Proceedings from ASLA 2002. Edsbruk: Akademitryck, 297-311.
Johansson-Hidén, B., Sandlund, E. & Friman, Y. (2002). En grupp brandmäns interaktion om prioriteringar i räddningsaktioner. Karlstad University Studies, 2002:2.
Sandlund, E.S..; Linnarud, M.; & Norlander, T. (2001): Effects of Stress versus Flotation-REST Relaxation on Creativity and Literacy Skills in Advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) Composition. International Journal of Language and Communication, 15, 95-113.
Sandlund, E & Norlander, T. (2000): The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Relaxation and Exercise on Stress Responses and Well being - an Overview of Research. International Journal of Stress Management, 7, 139-149.