# Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

7.5 ECTS credits

Classic Thermodynamics, 4.5 ECTS Credits:

Basic concepts: thermodynamic systems, state, equilibrium, process, cycle. Temperature and the zeroth law of thermodynamics, internal energy, pressure, enthalpy, work, heat. The phases of pure substances and phase transitions, state diagrams and phase diagrams. Ideal and non-ideal gases. The first law of thermodynamics for closed systems. Changes in the internal energy and enthalpy of ideal gases, heat capacity. Heat reservoir, heat engine, heat pump, and cooling process, the second law of thermodynamics. Reversible and irreversible processes, the Carnot cycle, the thermodynamical temperature scale, reversible heat engines, heat pumps, and cooling processes. Entropy, the principle of increasing entropy, changes in entropy for ideal gases. Analysis of heat engines, ideal cycles. Thermodynamical potentials, Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies, Maxwell's relations.

Statistical Physics, 3.5 ECTS Credits:

Kinetic theory for ideal gases. Probability distribution, mean, and deviation. Bernoulli processes and binomial distribution. Normal distribution, the law of large numbers, the central limit theorem, the connections between macroscopic properties and statistical mechanics. Macrostates and microstates, ensembles. Isolated systems and the microcanonical ensemble, the equiprobability principle, the entropy of isolated systems. Systems in thermal equilibrium with heat reservoirs and the canonical ensemble, the Boltzmann distribution, state sum, response functions and heat capacity, and entropy and the third law of thermodynamics. Free energy and statistical thermodynamics. Entangled particles, the Pauli principle, bosons and fermions. Classic and quantum mechanical ideal gas; the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein, and Fermi- Dirac distributions; black body radiation.

Basic concepts: thermodynamic systems, state, equilibrium, process, cycle. Temperature and the zeroth law of thermodynamics, internal energy, pressure, enthalpy, work, heat. The phases of pure substances and phase transitions, state diagrams and phase diagrams. Ideal and non-ideal gases. The first law of thermodynamics for closed systems. Changes in the internal energy and enthalpy of ideal gases, heat capacity. Heat reservoir, heat engine, heat pump, and cooling process, the second law of thermodynamics. Reversible and irreversible processes, the Carnot cycle, the thermodynamical temperature scale, reversible heat engines, heat pumps, and cooling processes. Entropy, the principle of increasing entropy, changes in entropy for ideal gases. Analysis of heat engines, ideal cycles. Thermodynamical potentials, Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies, Maxwell's relations.

Statistical Physics, 3.5 ECTS Credits:

Kinetic theory for ideal gases. Probability distribution, mean, and deviation. Bernoulli processes and binomial distribution. Normal distribution, the law of large numbers, the central limit theorem, the connections between macroscopic properties and statistical mechanics. Macrostates and microstates, ensembles. Isolated systems and the microcanonical ensemble, the equiprobability principle, the entropy of isolated systems. Systems in thermal equilibrium with heat reservoirs and the canonical ensemble, the Boltzmann distribution, state sum, response functions and heat capacity, and entropy and the third law of thermodynamics. Free energy and statistical thermodynamics. Entangled particles, the Pauli principle, bosons and fermions. Classic and quantum mechanical ideal gas; the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein, and Fermi- Dirac distributions; black body radiation.

Progressive specialisation:
G1F (has less than 60 credits in first‐cycle course/s as entry requirements)

Education level:
Undergraduate level

Admission requirements:
Physics, 30 ECTS Credits, and matehmatics, 30 ECTS Credits

Selection:

Selection is usually based on your grade point average from upper secondary school or the number of credit points from previous university studies, or both.

### More information

Course code:
FYGB02

### This course is included in the following programme

- Science programme Physics/Chemistry/Mathematics: Physics (studied during year 2)
- Bachelor Programme in Physics (studied during year 2)
- Master of Science in Engineering Physics (studied during year 2)

**The course is not included in the course offerings for the next period.**